Kazan, located in the Republic of Tatarstan, is often referred to as the “Third Capital” of Russia. The city has grown dramatically in recent years as a scientific and cultural center. Kazan will host both the 2013 Summer Universiade and the 2018 FIFA World Cup, and dozens of sports stadiums and venues are already under construction. Both Islamic and Christian traditions exist side by side in the city. The Qolsharif mosque, originally destroyed by Ivan the Terrible in the sixteenth century, was rebuilt in 2005, though with a more modern design. The juxtaposition of old and new, and the reinvention of old landmarks with modern features, creates a unique city architecture.